Open Access Original article

Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

Mohamed Shaaban12*, Howaida I Abd-Alla1, Amal Z Hassan1, Hanan F Aly3 and Mohamed A Ghani4

Author Affiliations

1 Chemistry of Natural Compounds Department, Division of Pharmaceutical Industries, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, 12622, Egypt

2 Institute of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Göttingen, Tammannstraβe 2, Göttingen, D-37077, Germany

3 Department of Therapeutic Chemistry, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, 12622, Egypt

4 Red Sea Marine Parks, P.O. Box 363, Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt

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Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2012, 2:30  doi:10.1186/2191-2858-2-30

Published: 16 August 2012

Abstract

Background

More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed.

Methods

All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA).

Results

Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), β-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7).

Conclusion

Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, were identified as Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4). The results demonstrated that different sponges extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Chemical characterizations of sponges SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Based on this study, marine sponges are considered as talented sources for production of diverse and multiple biologically active compounds.

Keywords:
Sponges; Chemical characterization; α-amylase; α-glucosidase; β-galactosidase; Antioxidants

Graphical abstract